Skip to content

Category: Learn

Learn

Understand the creative process: Get in touch with your hunches

Understand the creative process: Get in touch with your hunches

  • The word “creative” is sometimes waved around like a badge of honor. We speak of creativity in hushed tones, as the special province of the “talented”. In reality, the creative process is messy, open, and vulnerable.
  • For this reason, creativity is often at its best in a group setting like brainstorming. But in order to work, the group creative process needs to be led by someone who understands it.
  • This sense of deep trust—that no idea is too silly, that every creative impulse is worth voicing and considering—is essential to producing great work.

Understand the creative process: Get in touch with your hunches

Learn

Greenland loses 4 trillion pounds of ice in one day

Greenland loses 4 trillion pounds of ice in one day

  • Climate scientists say that Greenland is experiencing ice losses that are unusually early and heavy.
  • Two main weather factors are fueling the losses: a high-pressure system and the resulting low cloud cover.
  • Greenland is a major contributor to sea-level rise.

None

Four trillion pounds of ice melted in Greenland on June 13 due to unusually warm and sunny weather, scientists report. Although it’s normal for ice to melt during Greenland’s “melt season,” the ice this year is melting earlier than expected and at an alarmingly fast rate.

“It’s very unusual to have this much melt so early in the season,” William Colgan, senior researcher at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, told the BBC. “It takes very rare conditions but they’re becoming increasingly common.”

Greenland’s current ice loss is on track to break records. In 2012, the island nation saw similarly severe losses, which, like current melting, was fueled by two main weather factors: a high-pressure system that carried warm air from the Central Atlantic to the skies over Greenland, causing warmer temperatures, and the resulting low cloud cover and snowfall, which allowed sunlight to hit the vast ice sheets.

Frozen white ice reflects most sunlight back into the sky. But melting ice turns into darker colors, which absorb more light and heat. This creates a positive feedback loop that speeds up melting.

“You’ve experienced this if you’ve walked down the road barefoot on a hot summer day,” geologist Trevor Nace wrote for Forbes.

“The black asphalt is much hotter than the white concrete sidewalk. This is due to the difference in how much solar radiation white versus black reflects. Hence, as Greenland melts more of its ice, the surface is converted from a high albedo white to darker colors. This, in turn, causes more melting and adds to the positive feedback loop.”

None

Albedo

Steffen Olsen, a scientist with the Danish Meteorological Institute, got an eerie up-close look at the changing ice sheets last week. Olsen was on a routine mission to pick up weather monitoring tools on sea ice in northwest Greenland when he saw meltwater pooled up on the sheet’s surface, making it look like his sled dogs were walking on water.

Greenland’s rapidly melting ice could raise global sea levels.

“Greenland has been an increasing contributor to global sea level rise over the past two decades,” Thomas Mote, a research scientist at the University of Georgia who studies Greenland’s climate, told CNN. “And surface melting and runoff is a large portion of that.”

Greenland loses 4 trillion pounds of ice in one day

Learn

Permafrost is melting 70 years earlier than expected in Arctic Canada

Permafrost is melting 70 years earlier than expected in Arctic Canada

  • A team of researchers discovered that permafrost in Northern Canada is melting at unusually fast rates.
  • This could causes dangerous and costly erosion, and it’s likely speeding up climate change because thawing permafrost releases heat-trapping gasses into the atmosphere.
  • This week, Canada’s House of Commons declared a national climate emergency.

None

A new study shows that permafrost in the Canadian Arctic is melting 70 years earlier than predicted. The melting was triggered by a series of unusually hot summers, said researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks, who measured the thawing while visiting remote outposts in Northern Canada. “What we saw was amazing,” Prof. Vladimir E. Romanovsky told Reuters. “It’s an indication that the climate is now warmer than at any time in the last 5,000 or more years.”

Permafrost is ground that’s been frozen for two or more consecutive years. This frozen soil helps to structurally support mountain ranges and slopes. “Think of permafrost as sort of the glue that holds the northern landscape together,” permafrost scientist Steve Kokelj told CBC.

When permafrost thaws quickly, it not only causes landscapes to erode, but also releases tons of heat-trapping gasses into the atmosphere. This could start a dangerous feedback loop that speeds up climate change and threatens the ability to maintain and build new infrastructure.

For example, there were 87 landslides in one night in Canada’s Northwest Territories. Nobody was injured in those remote areas, but Canadian climate scientists have a saying: “What happens in the North doesn’t stay in the North.”

“It’s a canary in the coalmine,” Louise Farquharson, a post-doctoral researcher and co-author of the study, told Reuters. “It’s very likely that this phenomenon is affecting a much more extensive region and that’s what we’re going to look at next.”

Thawing permafrost might already be limiting where new buildings and infrastructure can be built.

“We have to figure out what we’re going to do in the future,” Aurora Research Institute professor Chris Burn told CBC. “Because otherwise, when we make an investment in a building [or road] which is meant to last 50 years, if in 15 years it’s no good we’ve wasted a huge amount of resources.”

A ‘climate emergency’ in Canada

Canada is especially vulnerable to climate change. A report issued in April from the Environment and Climate Change Canada said that Canada is warming twice as quickly as the rest of the world, but that the warming is “effectively irreversible.” This week, Canada’s House of Commons voted to declare a national climate emergency.

“This is a national security issue, it is time we started treating it as one,” wrote Green Party Leader Elizabeth May on Twitter.

Jennifer Morgan, Executive Director of Greenpeace International, echoed a similar sense of urgency to Reuters. “Thawing permafrost is one of the tipping points for climate breakdown and it’s happening before our very eyes,” she said. “This premature thawing is another clear signal that we must decarbonize our economies, and immediately.”

Permafrost is melting 70 years earlier than expected in Arctic Canada

Learn

A universal biomolecular integral feedback controller for robust perfect adaptation

Nature, Published online: 19 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1321-1

A synthetic gene circuit implementing an integral feedback topology is shown to achieve robust perfect adaptation in living cells–mathematical analysis proves this topology is necessary for adaptation in networks with noisy dynamics. http://feeds.nature.com/nature/rss/current via https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1321-1

Learn

Perfect Andreev reflection due to the Klein paradox in a topological superconducting state

Nature, Published online: 19 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1305-1

Perfect transmission of electrons through a finite potential barrier between a normal metal and a topological superconducting state is demonstrated, as evidenced by an exact doubling of conductance in point contact measurements. http://feeds.nature.com/nature/rss/current via https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1305-1

Learn

Location-level processes drive the establishment of alien bird populations worldwide

Nature, Published online: 19 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1292-2

Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis of a global database of bird introduction events reveals the environmental, climatic and biotic factors that are the primary determinants of the successful establishment of populations of alien species. http://feeds.nature.com/nature/rss/current via https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1292-2